Lipid Disorders

Measurements

  • Lipoproteins = lipids (cholesteryl esters & triglycerides) + phospholipids + proteins
    • include: chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL, Lp(a)
  • Measure after 12-h fast; LDL typically calculated: LDL-C = TC – HDL-C – (TG/5) underestim. if TG >400 or LDL-C <70 mg/dL; ∴ directly measure LDL-C
    • levels stable up to 24 h after ACS, then ↓ and may take 6 wk to return to nl
  • PEx clues: tendon xanthomas (eg, Achilles), imply LDL >300 mg/dL; eruptive xanthomas on extensor surfaces imply TG >1000 mg/dL; xanthelasma (yellowish streaks on eyelids)
  • Metabolic syndrome (≥3 HDL <40 mg/dL (♂) or <50 mg/dL (♀); BP ≥130/85 mmHg; fasting glc ≥100 mg/dL (