Bacteremia & Endocarditis

Bacteremia

Etiologies

  • 1° infxn due to direct inoculation of the blood, frequently assoc w/ intravascular catheters. Catheter-related bloodstream infection = same org from peripheral cx and cath tip cx or cx drawn from catheter (CID 2009;49:1).
  • 2° infxn due to infection in another site (eg, UTI, lung, biliary tree, skin) spreading to blood

Microbiology

  • Coag-neg staph 34%, S. aureus 10%, enterococci 16%, Candida 12%, GNRs 5%
  • Clostridium septicum, Bacteroides, & S. bovis a/w colon ca (Gastro 2018;155:383)
  • Bacteremia with encapsulated organisms (S. pneumo, Neisseria, Haemophilus, strep) may indicate 1° immunodeficiency (