Anemia

in RBC mass: Hct <41% or Hb <13.5 g/dL (men); Hct <36% or Hb <12 g/dL (women)

Clinical manifestations

  • Symptoms: ↓ O2 delivery → fatigue, exertional dyspnea, angina (if CAD)
  • Signs: pallor (mucous membranes, palmar creases), tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension
  • Other findings: jaundice (hemolysis), splenomegaly (thalassemia, neoplasm, chronic
    • hemolysis), petechiae/purpura (bleeding disorder), glossitis (iron, folate, vitamin B12
    • defic.), koilonychia (iron defic.), neurologic abnormalities (B12 defic.)

Diagnostic evaluation

  • History: bleeding, systemic illness, drugs, exposures, alcohol, diet (including pica), FHx
  • CBC w/ diff.; RBC params cs, MCV (nb, mixed disorder can → nl MCV), RDW