Acid-Base Disturbances

General

Definitions

  • Acidemia → pH <7.36, alkalemia → pH >7.44; pH = 6.10 + log([HCO3]/[0.03xPCO2])
  • Acidosis → process that ↑ [H+] or ↓ pH by ↓ HCO3 or ↑ PaCO2
  • Alkalosis → process that ↓ [H+] or ↑ pH by ↑ HCO3 or ↓ PaCO2
  • Primary disorders: metabolic acidosis or alkalosis, respiratory acidosis or alkalosis
  • Compensation
    • Respiratory: hyper/hypoventilation alters PaCO2 to counteract 1° metabolic process
    • Renal: excretion/retention of H+/HCO3 to counteract 1° espiratory process