Atrial Fibrillation

Classification (Circ 2014;130:e199)

  • Paroxysmal (self-terminating, usually <48 h, often triggered in pulm veins) vs. persistent (>7 d) vs. long-standing persistent (>1 y) vs. permanent (no plan for SR)
  • Nonvalvular (AF absent rheumatic MS, prosthetic valve, or mitral valve repair) vs. valvular

Epidemiology and etiologies (Circ 2011;124:1982; Nat Rev 2016;2:1)

  • 1–2% of pop. has AF (10% of those age ≥80); M > F; lifetime risk ~25%
  • Acute (up to 50% w/o identifiable cause)
    • Cardiac: HF, new CMP, myo/pericarditis, ischemia/MI, HTN crisis, valve dis., cardiac surg
    • Pulmonary: acute pulmonary disease or OSA