Reprinted from Schiano C, Vietri MT, Grimaldi V, et al. Epigenetic-related therapeutic challenges in cardiovascular disease. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 36:226–235. With permission from Elsevier.
    • Epigenetics are defined as heritable changes in the genome that are not caused by alterations in DNA sequence. The DNA exists in the form of chromatin, which is composed of units of nucleosomes. Nucleosome contains an octamer of histone core and the wrapping DNA of 147 bp.
    • Epigenetic mechanisms include the DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modification, nucleosome restructure, and noncoding RNAs. ween the active “euchromatic” and the suppressive “heterochromatic” transcription states.
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