NFκb Pathway

    • Ligands for cytokine receptors include interferons (e.g., IFN-α, -β, -γ) and interleukins (e.g., IL-2).
    • RANK is a membrane protein expressed on the surface of osteoclasts and is activated by RANKL binding.
    • It is also found on dendritic cells and facilitates immune signaling.
    • RANKL is found on surface of stromal cells, osteoblasts, and T cells.
    • Osteoclasts are aberrantly activated in the setting of bone metastasis.
    • Denosumab is an FDA-approved antibody against RANKL for treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of skeleton-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors.
    Other topics in Molecular Targets and Pathways