TGFβ/SMAD Pathway

    • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway plays a critical role in cell growth, differentiation, and development. TGFβ stimulate proliferation of mesenchymal cells, but inhibit proliferation of epithelial cells.
    • In cancer, TGFβ inhibits immune response against cancer, while stimulating stromal cells to proliferate.
    • Signaling is initiated by interaction of the ligand with the receptor and oligomerization of serine/threonine TGFβ receptor kinases and phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic signaling molecules SMAD2 and SMAD3.
    • SMAD transcription factors are phosphorylated and translocated to nucleus where they stimulate expression of genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors or lar matrix.
    Other topics in Molecular Targets and Pathways