Autophagy and Cell Death
- Autophagy Mediates Recycling, Cell Survival, and Death
- Immune Monitoring
- Resistance Mutations
- Gradations of the Angiogenic Switch
- Invasion and Metastasis
- EMT and Metastasis
- Local Invasion Versus Distant Metastasis
- Metastatic Colonization is Actually an Inefficient Process
- Working at a Distance—the Abscopal Effect
- Strategies for the Future and Organ Agnostic Therapy
- NTRK Fusion and Gene-Based Organ Agnostic Treatment
- The Paradox of Accelerated Growth Response to Targeted Therapy
Autophagy Mediates Recycling, Cell Survival, and Death
Cancer cell cytoplasmic vesicles under circumstances of stress or limited nutrients can ingest organelles such as ribosomes and mitochondria, fuse them with lysosomes, and recycle them for energy and growth. Nobel Prize winner Christian de Duve coined this process “autophagy” (see Figure 2.6, Deter et al., 1967; Klionsky, 2008).
Beclin-1, a member of the BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3), is bound to BCL-2/BCL-xL in an inactive state. When autophagy is triggered, Beclin-1 separates from BCL-2/BCL-xL analogous to apoptosis (see Figure 2.7 showing the various Bcl-2 family members).