Cancer as a “Pseudo-Organ” with Great Proliferative Advantage

Orchestrating the Development of the Tumor Microenvironment

Displaying a useful graphic depiction of the highly complex network of microenvironmental signaling interactions remains a great challenge, made even more difficult due to tumor progression and the interplay between neoplastic and supporting stromal cells. This model becomes even more complex as cancers metastasize.

Cancer Stem Cells

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the “seeds” that develop when normal tissue stem cells undergo transformation. CSCs are often more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation and may also become dormant only to recur even years after initial s as a “clone then may become genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous with variable degrees of differentiation” (Nguyen et al., 2012).