Processes Cancers Use to Grow

This section reviews carcinogenesis from the perspective of targeted therapy. Great progress has occurred in defining the key processes cancers use to grow and develop into life-threatening diseases, perhaps most notably by Hanahan and Weinberg (2011). The hope has been to find driver mutations that can be controlled by one or more specific, less toxic-targeted agents.
Unfortunately, cancers are nimble, have the ability to change their behavior, have many redundant pathways, and often develop resistance to even the most elegant gene-based therapy. Here, we review initial genomic and metabolic changes; uncontrolled read; and acquired resistance to targeted therapy. Focusing on these important cellular defects may reveal new paths for cancer treatment. Fourteen important processes that contribute to the growth of cancers are shown in Figure 2.2.